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Ph Strips For Urine Testing Where To Buy



In the past, urine glucose testing was used to screen for or monitor diabetes. But urine glucose testing is not as accurate as blood glucose testing, so blood tests are now more commonly used to diagnose and monitor diabetes.




ph strips for urine testing where to buy



Your provider may order a urine glucose test if blood glucose testing is difficult for you. A blood test may be difficult if your veins are too small or scarred from repeated punctures or if you have an extreme fear of needles.


Your provider may ask you to monitor your urine glucose at home with a test kit. Your urine glucose home test kit will include a package of strips for testing and instructions on how to do the test. Be sure to follow the instructions carefully. Talk with your provider about what time of day you should test your urine to get the most accurate results.


A standard urine test strip may comprise up to 10 different chemical pads or reagents which react (change color) when immersed in, and then removed from, a urine sample. The test can often be read in as little as 60 to 120 seconds after dipping, although certain tests require longer. Routine testing of the urine with multiparameter strips is the first step in the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases. The analysis includes testing for the presence of proteins, glucose, ketones, haemoglobin, bilirubin, urobilinogen, acetone, nitrite and leucocytes as well as testing of pH and specific gravity or to test for infection by different pathogens.[2]


The test strips consist of a ribbon made of plastic or paper of about 5 millimetre wide, plastic strips have pads impregnated with chemicals that react with the compounds present in urine producing a characteristic colour. For the paper strips the reactants are absorbed directly onto the paper. Paper strips are often specific to a single reaction (e.g. pH measurement), while the strips with pads allow several determinations simultaneously.[2]


Chemical tests for blood use the pseudoperoxidase activity of hemoglobin to catalyze a reaction between the heme component of both hemoglobin and myoglobin and the chromogen (a substance that acquires colour after a chemical reaction) tetramethylbenzidine to produce an oxidized chromogen, which has a green-blue colour. Reagent strip manufacturers incorporate peroxide, and tetramethylbenzidine, into the blood testing area. Two colour charts are provided that correspond to the reactions that occur with hemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria and hematuria (RBCs). In the presence of free hemoglobin/myoglobin, uniform colour ranging from a negative yellow through green to a strongly positive green-blue appears on the pad. In contrast, intact red blood cells are lysed when they come in contact with the pad, and the liberated hemoglobin produces an isolated reaction that results in a speckled pattern on the pad. Reagent strip tests can detect concentrations as low as five red blood cells per microliter; however, care must be taken when comparing these figures with the actual microscopic values, because the absorbent nature of the pad attracts some of urine. The terms trace, small, moderate, and large (or trace, 1+, 2+, and 3+) are used for reporting.


False-positive reactions due to menstrual contamination may be seen. They also occur if strong oxidizing detergents are present in the specimen container. Vegetable peroxidase and bacterial enzymes, including an Escherichia coli peroxidase, may also cause false-positive reactions. Therefore, sediments containing bacteria should be checked closely for the presence of red blood cells. Traditionally, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) has been associated with false-negative reagent strip reactions for blood. Both Multistix and Chemstrip have modified their reagent strips to reduce this interference to very high levels of ascorbic acid, and Chemstrip overlays the reagent pad with an iodate-impregnated mesh that oxidizes the ascorbic acid prior to its reaching the reaction pad. False-negative reactions can result when urine with a high specific gravity contains crenated red blood cells that do not lyse when they come in contact with the reagent pad. Decreased reactivity may also be seen when formalin is used as a preservative or when the hypertension medication captopril or high concentration of nitrite are present. Red blood cells settle to the bottom of the specimen container, and failure to mix the specimen prior to testing causes a falsely decreased reading.[10]


The major source of error with reagent strips occurs with highly buffered alkaline urine that overrides the acid buffer system, producing a rise in pH and a colour change unrelated to protein concentration. Likewise, a technical error of allowing the reagent pad to remain in contact with the urine for a prolonged period may remove the buffer. False-positive readings are obtained when the reaction does not take place under acidic conditions. Highly pigmented urine and contamination of the container with quaternary ammonium compounds, detergents and antiseptics also cause false-positive readings. A false-positive trace reading may occur in specimens with a high specific gravity.


The test used in the urine test strips is based on the reaction of sodium nitroprusside (nitroferricyanide). In this reaction the acetoacetic acid in an alkali medium reacts with the sodium nitroprusside producing a magenta coloured complex:[6][14]


Intestinal bacteria convert the conjugated bilirubin that is excreted by the bile duct into the intestine into urobilinogen and stercobilinogen. Part of the urobilinogen is reabsorbed in the intestine then circulated in the blood to the liver where it is excreted. A small part of this recirculated urobilinogen is filtered out by the kidneys and appears in urine (less than 1 mg/dL urine). The stercobilinogen can not be reabsorbed and remains in the intestine.[15][16]


Treatment monitoring with the aid of urine test strips allows a health professional to check on the results of the prescribed therapy, and if necessary to introduce any changes into the course of therapy.


Self-monitoring with urine test strips under the guidance of a health professional is an effective method for monitoring the disease state. This applies particularly to diabetics, where the idea of self-monitoring of the metabolic status (determinations of glucose and ketones) is self-evident.


Even though the test strips have changed little in appearance since the 1960s, they now contain a number of innovations. New impregnation techniques, more stable colour indicators, and the steady improvement in colour gradation have all contributed to the fact that the use of urine test strips has now become established in clinical and general practice as a reliable diagnostic instrument. The parameter menu offered has steadily grown longer in the intervening decades.


Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is known to interfere with the oxidation reaction of the blood and glucose pad on common urine test strips. Some urine test strips are protected against the interference with iodate, which eliminates ascorbic acid by oxidation.[25] Some test strips include a test for urinary ascorbate.


Automatic analysis of urine test strips using automated urine test strip analysers is a well-established practice in modern-day urinalysis. They can measure calcium, blood, glucose, bilirubin, urobilinogen, ketones, leukocytes, creatinine, microalbumin, pH, ascorbic acid and protein.[26]


Testing your urine for ketones yourself is generally considered less accurate than a blood ketone test. However, when done it's correctly, testing your urine for ketones at home can help you monitor a condition or know when it's time to call your provider for more care.


According to the FDA, substandard urine ketone test strips could provide inaccurate results: "If a user receives an inaccurate result from a test strip and uses this result as a basis for their treatment, they could take too much medication or not enough medication potentially leading to serious patient injury, including death."


By analyzing urine it is possible to understand the state of the body. The presence or absence of certain molecules, and the measurement of other properties can indicate potential health issues in the Kidney, Urinary Tract or elsewhere in the body.


Those products which are aimed at patients are beneficial due to the diagnostic nature of the tests. Products like the Atlas Medical Home Test Kits allow users to obtain a diagnostic which is very useful. There are other kits, which we will not name, which do the same, but at a a very hefty price. The worst we have seen is a kit which sells two urine test strips for nearly 29 US dollars! This is nearly 100 times the price per strip if bought elsewhere. Clearly information asymmetry can lead to being ripped off.


We recommend that users start with a strip which has most, if not all, testing parameters available. Products like the Roche Combur 9 or Combur 10, and the Siemens Multistix 10SG, are perfect for this purpose. These strips have up to 10 assays that cover the vast majority of tests that can be done with a Urine Dipstick. By testing all these parameters and you can identify quickly if you have presence of any compounds that could indicate health problems and acts as a general health screen.


With some research and learning home urine testing can be mastered and can form an important part of your health record. Strips which offer no diagnosis to home urine test users are often cheaper but require more knowledge by the user. Strips which offer a diagnosis can be more expensive, but they do provide the peace of mind that comes with a clear diagnosis.


In this article we will show you how to test urine pH at home with urine pH test strips. We will take you through 5 steps to conducting the appropriate Home Urine Test and give you some good tips for understanding your results. These results can be used to track and manage conditions that effect your urine pH.


To do the test you will need a disposable urine sample collection cup, a stopwatch and your urine strips. For those people who want to save their results, they should have the PURI application installed and opened on their phone. 041b061a72


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